Peptic Ulcer

It is characterized by formation of defects in stomach or duodenum. The disease proceeds cyclically, with exacerbations, for years undermining health of the person. Exacerbations in most of patients happen in spring and in autumn.

Almost always ulcer develops in the patients who already have chronic gastritis. But additional factors are necessary: stresses, depressions, bad heredity, and eating rough food, at which generation of hydrochloric acid is enlarged. Abuse of alcohol strengthening aggressive action of gastric juice is capable to lead to ulcer. Nicotine also increases production of acid. Ulcer can be formed at taking some drugs – aspirin, corticosteroid hormones.

Pain at the top of abdomen warns about peptic ulcer. The patient is disturbed by night pains and arising on an empty stomach. To suppress pain, it is necessary to eat something.

Pain has noticeable rhythm (connected with meals), the expressed seasonality (spring-autumn), frequency. Pains decrease after taking antacids.

Frequent symptom is a heartburn arising a couple hours later of last meal. Such characteristic symptoms as an acidic eructation, constipations, nausea, vomiting also testify to ulcer. Appetite is kept or increased; the patient with ulcer has “a painful hunger”.

Sometimes the ulcer proceeds asymptomatically. Defect penetration deep into walls of a stomach is dangerously with development of bleeding or its rupture.

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Cystitis is an inflammation of internal bladder mucosa. More often women suffer from cystitis; the urethral channel in them is short, wide, and the infection gets easier into the bladder. More often the originator of infectious cystitis is colon bacillus; chlamydia, funguses, urea plasma are seldom.

The role of disturbances of blood circulation in small pelvis during sedentary work is important, frequent or long constipations, wearing of the squeezing clothes, tight stockings. Decrease in immunity, influence of the irritating substances which are discharged with urine, at use of spicy or over roasted nutrition, large amount of spices also influences.

At acute cystitis of the patient suffers from frequent urination which is followed by a sharp pain in bladder and perineum. At the end of urination blood is discharged. The more inflammation is expressed, the more often is uresiesthesia the sharper is pain. In case of severe form of acute cystitis the person should urinate in 15-20 minutes round the clock. Body temperature rises; there is nausea.

Chronic cystitis proceeds with similar, less expressed symptoms. Its course is persistent or is characterized by frequent exacerbations.

You shouldn’t try to cure cystitis on your own. For this purpose it is necessary to apply to gynecologist or urologist. Comprehensive treatment is prescribed, based on fight against the infection if cystitis has the infectious nature. The infection of sexual ways should be treated concurrently in women otherwise they will again become a source of microorganisms for bladder.

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Cirrhosis is a replacement of normal liver cells with a cicatrix tissue. There are two most important causes of cirrhosis: alcoholism and viral hepatitis. A certain role is played by long disturbance of bile outflow, poisoning with toxic substances, occlusion of hepatic veins.

At cirrhosis there is a rising of pressure in a portal liver vein, as a result of squeezing of fine vessels with expanded cicatrix tissue. The blood starts flowing bypassing liver in other vessels – veins about a belly-button, to hemorrhoid veins, veins of the lower third of esophagus. These veins extend, at the slightest damage there can be a severe bleeding. Also normal outflow of bile is broken, there is an icterus.

The first implications of cirrhosis are: appetite decrease, weight loss, and weakness, increase of liver and spleen sizes. The patient feels heaviness in the top part of abdomen or the right the hypochondria, there is a localized not sharply expressed aching pain in the same place.

Because of a phlebectasia round belly-button there is a bluish vascular network in the form of beams. Palms redden; there are red maculae similar to little spiders on the body. In people of both genders the ability to sexual life weakens, sexual signs atrophy.

The patient complains of a headache, disturbance of memory and attention. It occurs because of toxic substances accumulation in blood.

It is impossible to cure cirrhosis completely but at early stages it is possible to slow it down.

The diet with an exception of alcohol, fat, fried is prescribed. At viral hepatitis specific antiviral therapy is necessary. For pressure decrease in a portal vein propranolol is applied. Liver cells are protected from damages with hepatoprotector. Surgical treatment may be required.

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Chronic cholecystitis

Chronic cholecystitis is a gall bladder inflammation with slow gradual development. Usually the cholecystitis develops as complication of gall stones. Stones lead to damage of a bubble wall, make difficult bile outflow. There are bacteria or parasites in bile – ameba, worms in most of patients with cholecystitis.

The inflammation of gall bladder can be caused with getting of aggressive enzymes of pancreas. Often such situation accompanies pancreatitis. Also the course of disease is promoted by congenital deformation of bubble, its trauma, dyskinesia of biliary ducts, tumors of abdominal organs, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis, living on snacks, sedentary lifestyle, constipations, and pregnancy.

As a result of inflammatory process bubble walls are thickened, lose flexibility, the mucosa ulcerates, becomes covered by cicatrices. It promotes further deterioration of bile passage and formation of new stones. There is a chronic cholecystitis.

The patient feels dull aches, with a locating in the right hypochondria, periodically shows complaints to nausea, vomiting, the distended abdomen, regular diarrheas after meals. The exacerbation arises in 2-4 hours later after eating of greasy, fried, smoked food. Jolting, frigorism, stresses, exercise stresses can provoke an attack. Smoked, spicy, fried, sausages, canned food, spicy cheeses, chocolate, alcohol, carbonated drinks are excluded.

At chronic cholecystitis the diet is prescribed. Milk and fruit soups, boiled vegetables, puddings, porridges, boiled fish, low-fat meat are used. Tea, kissel, compote, juice, milk, mineral waters are allowed for drinking.

From medicines spasmolytic and bile-expelling medicines are applied.

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Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a pancreas inflammation. Chronic proceeds long, with the exacerbation periods. It develops at long alcohol intake, gall bladder diseases. After the acute pancreatitis the chronic arises practically always. Also inflammatory process is promoted by some drugs (antibiotics, Sulfanilamide, Furosemide), infections (hepatitis, parotitis), and worms (acarida), hormonal disturbances.

At chronic pancreatitis the main of pancreas tissue turns in cicatricle, in insufficient quantity digestive enzymes are produced.

The patient is disturbed by pain in epigastria, with extension in hypochondriac, and back. Pain may be encircling, grows when the patient in lying on his back position, weakens when the person sits down or slightly bends forward. Pain grows after meal (in particular plentiful, fried, fat, spicy).

Diarrheas also accompany pancreatitis. The stool is mushy, may contain undigested parts of nutrition. The volume of feces is strongly enlarged; it has an unpleasant smell, gray shade, fatty, is hardly washed away. There can be eructation, nausea, flatulence. The patient loses appetite, grows thin.

During the exacerbation the treatment is carried out at a hospital, similar to treatment of acute pancreatitis. After subsiding of implications of illness keeping of a diet takes the first place. It is desirable to exclude entirely alcohol, marinades, greasy, fried, spicy food, and fragrant broths. The nutrition has to contain a large amount of proteins and limited carbohydrates. The nutrition is given in warmed condition. It is necessary to eat many times per day, a little at a time.

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Chronic Gastritis

Chronic gastritis is a Long-term mucous inflammation of stomach with the periods of n exacerbation and remission. The main cause of gastritis is infection with Helicobacter pylori bacterium (helicobacter). Other causes are met less often – long influence of erodent substances – aspirin at uncontrolled self-treatment, bile after the surgeries damaging the exit from the stomach.

Usually children and young people catch the helicobacter. Infection occurs through ware, hygienic subjects, endoscopes, at kisses. The bacterium develops the substances allowing it to survive in acid and injuring a stomach poisons. She is attached to a stomach wall under the slime covering it, and there breeds, causing damage of stomach mucosa.

More frequent on empty stomach, at night, there are cramp-like sharp pains at the abdomen top; there is nausea, and occasionally vomiting. The patient suffers from heartburn, acidic eructation, feeling of heaviness and overflowing in stomach, constipations, furred tongue.

Quite often chronic gastritis proceeds imperceptibly for the patient, without unpleasant feelings. But gastritis belongs to precancerous states and requires a serious attitude.

In treatment of the gastritis caused by a helicobacter killing bacteria medicines are applied. If acidity of gastric juice is raised or reduced, its correction is required. A diet is prescribed to the patient, the structure of nutrition has to be mechanically and chemically sparing.

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Stomach injury

There is an opened and closed injury. Wounds belong to open (the knife, fire). Closed (blunt) trauma is abdominal wall contusion, with an internal injury or without it, abdominal wall myorrhexis, and ruptures of internals.

Kicks, falling on a hard surface, abrupt stress of muscles are the reason of a blunt trauma during exercises, sometimes at tussis.

At abdominal wall contusion there is a local tumescence, pain, abrasions, hemorrhages are visible. Pain grows at tussis, defecation, change of body position.

The abdominal wall myorrhexis is shown with similar signs, but pain is expressed more sharply, leading to a reflex stopping of intestine (dynamic obstruction), and abdominal distention. In case myorrhexis hemorrhages, which sometimes far extend, can be formed.

At kick in stomach ruptures of small intestine is met more often. Symptoms of intestine rupture are: growing abdominal pain, restriction of respiratory movements, strain of muscles, vomiting, and pulse increase.

Injury of liver is often met. Ruptures and cracks happen inside of capsule, but at severe injury parts of liver tear off. The condition of the patient is serious, with loss of consciousness. Because of bleeding arterial pressure falls, pulse is accelerated, the skin turns pale, sweats, respiration is speeded up, and there is a thirst.

Injuries of spleen are also frequent. The hypodermic rupture of spleen may happen even at a slight injury. If the rupture of spleen occurs under the capsule, the accruing hematoma lacerates it, there is a massive bleeding in an abdominal cavity. The rupture of spleen is characterized by the expressed pressure drop, frequent pulse. Pain is localized in the left hypochondria.

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Salmonellosis is the intestinal infection caused by microbes from a genus of salmonellas. Bacteria are long preserved: till 5 months in water, up to 4 in sausages, almost half a year at freezing. In many products (meat, milk) of salmonella even breeds, thus appearance of medium of habitat doesn’t change. Smoking and pickling very poorly influence microbes. Salmonellosis perfectly extends through eggs of sick birds.

Symptoms of illness can appear within 6-72 hours after infection. They can be strongly marked, but sometimes are indistinct. In the latter case the person becomes a bacteria carrier – he doesn’t suffer himself, but can infect people around.

Salmonellas discharge a poison, having lodged in the intestine lumen. Its action compels the organism to lose water through the intestinal wall. The tonus of vessels is broken, the nervous system is damaged. In most cases temperature increases, there is a general weakness, nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, liquid watery stool many times a day.

The serious course of a disease conducts to organism dehydration. Patient’s liver and spleen are enlarged, the renal failure sometimes develops. At the correct treatment salmonellosis passes in a week.

For fight against salmonellas antibiotics are prescribed. To compensate the lost liquid, saline solutions are injected to the patient. Preparations for removal of toxins and renewal of usual intestinal micro flora are given. The diet and health-improving measures are useful.

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Colon cancer

Cancer of large intestine is the most dangerous malignant tumor where cells originate from mucosa. The tumor affects most often blind intestine, sigmoid or rectum.

Developing of tumor is promoted by prevalence in food of meat, flour, fat products, and small content of vegetables. Constipations, polyps, inflammatory diseases of colon, advanced age, genetic predisposition influence. At excess of animal fats the substances causing development of tumor are formed. At constipations time of influence of these substances on mucosa is enlarged.

Cancer cells quickly breed. The growing tumor enlarges, fills an intestine lumen. An intestinal obstruction develops. At tumor growth into intestine wall vessels are destroyed, there is an intestinal bleeding.

Clinical symptoms appear when the tumor got the significant sizes. First of all, abdominal pains – usually dull, aching, long. The patient is disturbed by constipations, emergence of fresh and changed blood in feces, small temperature increase, rumbling and abdominal distention, paleness, small appetite, loss of weight, and weakness.

The main way of cancer therapy is surgical. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy is used in addition. The type of the operation is defined by the tumor locating, its size, and existence of metastasis. If the tumor is small, located conveniently for excision, it is deleted completely, keeping normal functioning of the intestine of the patient. At a big tumor an artificial outlet opening of the intestine is made, bringing it to the patient’s abdomen.

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Gastric Cancer

Gastric cancer is a malignant tumor. The probability to fell ill depends on heredity, features of nutrition (spicy, salty, fried, smoked and tinned food), in particular the nitrite giving a red color to sausages is capable to cause a cancer. Precancerous states are long stomach diseases – gastritis with the reduced acidity, polyps and ulcers. More often there is a cancer in people who underwent operations. Connection with cancer of Helicobacter Pylori bacterium living in stomach in half of people is proved. Infection with this bacterium can occur at kisses. Smoking and alcohol definitely lead to cancer. In a healthy stomach there is no cancer. At first properties of the cells covering stomach from within are changed.

The small tumor doesn’t give the expressed symptoms. Only sometimes loss of appetite, disgust for certain products, small temperature increase, and decrease of hemoglobin level becomes perceptible.

With growth of cancer tumor there new symptoms appear – heaviness in stomach after meals, nausea and vomiting, disturbances of stool (diarrheas and constipations). In time there are pains at the top of abdomen. At invasion in pancreas there are pains of the encircling character extended to back. Abdomen is enlarged in sizes, and liquid (ascites) accumulates in it. The patient grows thin. If vessels are blasted, bleeding is possible.

The success of cancer therapy of stomach depends on the sizes of the tumor and lesion with it the neighbor organs, existence of the remote metastasis.

The main method of treatment is a surgery. Tumor is removed with a part of stomach; sometimes it is necessary to remove stomach completely. After operation treatment medicines or radiation is prescribed.

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